In a prior report, we described the isolation and characterization of SIVrcm, a distinct primate lentivirus found in a household pet Red-Capped Mangabey (RCM) in Gabon. SIVrcm is divergent from HIV-1 and HIV-2/SIV families of primate lentiviruses. In this report, additional in vitro replication studies and the results of SIVrcm infection in macaques are presented. SIVrcm causes little cytopathic effect in Molt 4 Clone 8 cells and in rhesus and human PBMCs. In vivo, SIVrcm is non-pathogenic after 200 days in rhesus macaques and after one year in cynomolgous macaques, but does cause a chronic infection in both macaques.