Senile plaques (SPs) and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease, have not been thoroughly investigated histopathologically in nonhuman primates. To determine the onset age and histopathological characteristics of SPs and CAA, we examined the brains of 64 cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) from 2 to 35 years old. Mature (classical and primitive) plaques appeared in 16 out of 25 monkeys that were >20 years old. Moreover, mature plaques were observed more frequently than diffuse plaques and were located in the temporal cortex of the superior or inferior gyri and amygdala. Diffuse plaques in contrast to mature plaques did not show definite tendencies in onset age and distribution. CAA appeared in more than 22-year-old monkeys in 10 out of 16 animals and was frequently observed in capillaries and often found adjoining mature plaques. During immunohistochemical examination, an antiserum for amyloid β protein (Aβ) 1-40 could detect all SPs, whereas a monoclonal antibody for Aβ 8-17 could not detect any diffuse plaques and only one third of the primitive plaques. As for CAA, the polyclonal antiserum was more sensitive than the monoclonal antibody. The present study describes the histopathological features of SPs and CAA in old cynomolgus monkeys.