In this study, the normal distribution of renal weight and volume was determined and the correlation between the weight and volume and various skeletal measurements taken from radiographs and at necropsy was assessed. Values from 136 female monkeys with complete data (including all bone, radiographic, and kidney measurements) were analyzed. The mean kidney weight was 13 g with a standard deviation (SD) of 2 g. The mean kidney volume was 12 ml, SD 2 ml. The estimation of kidney weight and volume from bone length, age, or body weight was not reliable according to statistical analysis of our data. We did find that all apparently normal adult female rhesus monkeys typically have similar sized kidneys. This information is useful in that it reduces concerns about consistency in experimental subjects.