Left ventricular volume and function in cynomolgus monkeys using real-time three-dimensional echocardiography

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The purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of evaluating cardiac function by real time three-dimensional (RT3D) echocardiography in isoflurane-anesthetized male cynomolgus monkeys. Additionally differences between inhibitory effects of β-blockers and a Ca channel blocker on left ventricular (LV) function were examined.

Methods and Results

End-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV) and ejection fraction (EF) in the control (without any drug effect) were not significantly changed by repetitive measurement at a 30-day interval. Propranolol and metoprolol (0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg/10 minutes, i.v.) caused a dose-dependent increase in ESV, but little effect on EDV, resulting in a decrease in EF. Verapamil (0.1 and 0.3 mg/kg/10 minutes, i.v.) increased both EDV and ESV, but decreased EF was noted at 0.3 mg/kg.


These results demonstrate the feasibility of RT3D echocardiography in providing reproducible estimations of LV volume and EF in monkeys when evaluating drugs that may affect cardiac function.

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