Glenoid Hypoplasia: A Report of 2 Patients

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Abstract

Objective:

This article discusses the imaging findings, clinical findings, and conservative chiropractic management of 2 patients with glenoid hypoplasia.

Clinical Features:

Conventional radiographs of both patients revealed a hypoplastic glenoid bilaterally. Notch-like defects along with signs of degenerative disease were evident within the lower portion of the glenoid rims bilaterally in 1 patient and in the left glenoid rim of the other patient. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a degenerative cyst or cortical defect in one patient along the anterior humeral head. The second patient showed a small slightly lobulated cystic region just posterior to the glenoid rim, consistent with the appearance of a synovial or ganglion cyst. Computed tomography with 3-dimensional reconstruction in 1 patient confirmed the presence of large posterior and superior osteophytes arising from the significantly hypoplastic glenoid. These images also revealed a slight posterior subluxation of the humeral head, widening of the anterior glenohumeral joint space, and retroversion of the glenoid.

Intervention and Outcome:

Treatment consisted of manual joint manipulation, soft tissue therapies, and therapeutic exercise for both patients. Both patients experienced improvements in symptoms, function, and physical examination findings.

Conclusions:

Glenoid hypoplasia is a developmental anomaly of the scapular neck which is predominantly bilateral and symmetric. Cross-sectional imaging studies should be considered in patients with symptoms that fail to improve over time. Conservative chiropractic care may be effective in managing symptoms in patients with glenoid hypoplasia.

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