The purpose of this systematic review was to investigate the extent to which the STarT Back Screening Tool (SBST) has been evaluated for (1) the quality of translation of evidence for cross-cultural adaptation and (2) the measurement properties in languages other than English.Methods
A systematic search of 8 databases, including Medline, Embase, CINAHL, PsycINFO, AMED, Scopus, PubMed, and Web of Science, was performed. Electronic databases were searched for the period between 2008 and December 27, 2016. We included studies related to cross-cultural adaptation, including translation and assessment of the measurement properties of SBST. Study selection, translation, methodologic and quality assessments, and data extraction were performed independently by 2 reviewers.Results
Of the 1566 citations retrieved, 17 studies were admissible, representing 11 different SBST versions in 10 languages. The quadratic weighted κ statistics of the 2 reviewers, for the translation, methodologic assessment, and quality assessment were 0.85, 0.76, and 0.83, respectively. For translation, only 2 versions (Belgian-French and Mandarin) fulfilled all requirements. None of the versions had tested all the measurement properties, and when performed, these were found to have been conducted inadequately. With regard to quality assessment, overall, the included versions had a “Poor” total summary score except 2 (Persian and Swiss-German), which were rated as “Fair.”Conclusions
Few versions fully met the standard criteria for valid translation, and none of the versions tested all the measurement properties. There is a clear need for more accurate cross-cultural adaptation of SBST and greater attention to the quality of psychometric evaluation of the adapted versions of SBST. At this time, caution is recommended when using SBST in languages other than English.