The level of sarcoplasmic/endoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ ATPase (SERCA) mRNAs and proteins have been assessed by RT-PCR, immunoblotting and immunocytochemistry in the rat extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles during regeneration from notexin-induced necrosis. As a result of the necrosis, SERCA1 and SERCA2 declined on days 1 and 3 after administration of the toxin. Thereupon the mRNA of the fast isoform SERCA1 rapidly increased between days 5 and 10 to the normal level. The mRNA level of the “housekeeping” SERCA2b isoform increased markedly during the actual necrosis at days 1 and 5, probably due to invading cells. Then the mRNA level of the neonatal SERCA1b splice variant increased first, and exceeded the level of the adult SERCA1a transcript on day 5. At later stages of regeneration the neonatal form was gradually replaced by the adult SERCA1a form, thus recapitulating similar changes known to occur during normal ontogenesis. Along with S ERCA1, the levels of the slow isoform (SERCA2a) mRNA and protein increased on day 5, but the SERCA2a mRNA levels never rose above 10% of SERCA1 and after 10 days gradually declined again. In the normal and regenerated muscles, SERCA1 was expressed in 97% of the fibres which accounted for the population of fast-twitch fibres (type IIa, type IIb and probably type IIx/d). SERCA2a was present in 6% of the fibres of normal muscle (mostly in the slow-twitch type I fibres). At the end of regeneration the number of fibres expressing SERCA2a was twice as high and were found in small groups, unlike in normal EDL, but about 50% of these clustered fibres also expressed SERCA1.