Computer models of the musculoskeletal system are broadly used to study the mechanisms of musculoskeletal disorders and to simulate surgical treatments. Musculoskeletal models have historically been created based on data derived in anatomical and biomechanical studies of cadaveric specimens. MRI offers an abundance of novel methods for acquisition of data from living subjects and is revolutionizing the field of musculoskeletal modeling. The need to create accurate, individualized models of the musculoskeletal system is driving advances in MRI techniques including static imaging, dynamic imaging, diffusion imaging, body imaging, pulse-sequence design, and coil design. These techniques apply to imaging musculoskeletal anatomy, muscle architecture, joint motions, muscle moment arms, and muscle tissue deformations. Further advancements in image-based musculoskeletal modeling will expand the accuracy and utility of models used to study musculoskeletal and neuromuscular impairments.