The purpose of this study is to review the MR spectroscopic literature regarding schizophrenia. However, as there are over 250 primary MRS articles and dozens of MRS review articles on the subject already, this study will take a different approach. First, the clinical features of schizophrenia will be described. The background neuroanatomy and biochemistry relevant to schizophrenia will be reviewed, as many readers of this journal are unlikely to be familiar with these fields. A current model of the abnormal neural circuitry in schizophrenia will be presented, and predictions extrapolated about relevant metabolite changes over time. Finally, the existing MRS literature will be reviewed in the context of our existing anatomical and chemical knowledge, and future MRS research directions will be elaborated. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2011;. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.