Müllerian duct anomalies (MDA) occur due to abnormal development of the uterus, cervix, and vagina, many times affecting a woman's ability to conceive and carry a pregnancy to term. The spectrum of possible abnormalities are related to the development of two separate Müllerian systems, which then fuse and subsequently undergo degeneration of the fused segments. This multiphasic development explains the multiple variations within the scheme of MDA classification. The purpose of this article is to review the embryologic development of the Müllerian ducts, relate the development to the most commonly used classification system, and review the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) assessment of Müllerian duct anomalies. A brief review of the treatment options, as they relate to the imaging diagnosis, will be provided as well. J. Magn. Reson. Imaging 2015;41:1–12. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.