Histogram analysis of apparent diffusion coefficient at 3.0t: Correlation with prognostic factors and subtypes of invasive ductal carcinoma

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Abstract

Purpose:

To evaluate apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) histogram parameters that show correlations with prognostic factors and subtypes of breast cancer.

Materials and Methods:

At 3.0T, various ADC histogram parameters were calculated including the entire tumor volume in 173 invasive ductal carcinomas: the minimum, 10th percentile, mean, median, 90th percentile, and maximum. ADC parameters were correlated with prognostic factors and subtype.

Results:

The mean ADCmedian value was significantly higher in the group with lymph node metastasis, HER2 positivity, and a Ki-67 value <14% than in the group with negativity for lymph node metastasis, HER2 negativity, and a Ki-67 value ≥14% (0.907, 0.978, and 0.941 vs. 0.735, 0.778, and 0.761 × 10−3 mm2/s, respectively) (P < 0.01). There was no significant correlation between ADCmedian and tumor size, histologic grade, estrogen receptor expression, and progesterone receptor expression (P = 0.272, 0.113, 0.261, and 0.181, respectively). For most ADC parameters except for ADCmin, the mean of variable ADC parameters of HER2-positive, luminal A, luminal B-HER2(+), triple-negative, and luminal B-HER2(–) diseases were arranged in descending order (1.175, 0.936, 0.863, 0.811, and 0.665 × 10−3 mm2/s in ADCmedian, respectively) with statistical significant difference (P < 0.001). In multivariate analysis, histologic grade, the Ki-67 index, and HER2 expression were statistically significant explanatory prognostic factors for ADCmedian and the Ki-67 index had the most robust effects on ADC parameters (standardized coefficient = –0.317).

Conclusion:

Various ADC parameters were correlated with prognostic factors and subtype, except for ADCmin. HER2 positivity showed high ADC values and high Ki-67 index revealed low ADC values. J. MAGN. RESON. IMAGING 2015;42:1666–1678.

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