Effect of CuO–BaO mixture content on the grain growth of BaTiO3

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The present work has been aimed at studying the effect of processing variables such as amount of additions, sintering temperature, and duration on the density, microstructure, and grain growth of BaTiO3/CuO–BaO ceramics. Grain growth of BaTiO3 during liquid-phase sintering is investigated for CuO–BaO (mole ratio, CuO/BaO=2.5) mixture additions from 0.5 wt% to 2 wt%. Sintering in air for 1 to 16 h at 950 °C to 1250 °C is studied. BaTiO3 with 0.5 wt%, 1 wt%, 1.5 wt%, and 2 wt% CuO–BaO mixture additions, the average grain growth exponents are 5.3, 4.3, 5.9, and 9.2 and the activation energies are 605±60, 348±19, 650±50, and 810±110 kJ mol−1, respectively. For all compositions, the grain growth exponents decrease with increasing sintering temperature.

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