Polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) is a material employed as a cement in prosthesis that has been found to induce cytogenetic damage in human lymphocytes in vitro. This effect is particularly achieved before the 5th day of the exposition, while after this period no significant variations appeared. In the present study, results of cytogenetic tests in humans are reported. Sister chromatid exchange analysis and micronucleus tests have been performed on lymphocytes of patients who had undergone prosthesization with cemented prosthesis (group A) or with biological anchorage prosthesis, as control (group B). DNA damage was investigated before implantation and 5 d after surgery in both groups. Cytogenetic tests did not show any significant increase in the number of micronuclei and sister chromatid exchanges with respect to control values in patients with PMMA cemented prosthesis.