Characterization, bioactivity and ampicillin release kinetics of TiO2 and TiO24SiO2 synthesized by sol-gel processing

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Local drug delivery of antimicrobics by sustained release delivery system can be used to treat periodontal disease. Advantages of these systems may include maintaining high levels of antibiotic in the gingival crevicular fluid for a sustained period of time and ease of use with high patient acceptance. The materials used are TiO2 and TiO24SiO2, mixed with sodium ampicillin, a broad-spectrum antibiotic, have been synthesized by sol-gel method. The amorphous nature of the gels was ascertained by X-ray diffraction analysis. Release kinetics in a simulated body fluid (SBF) have been subsequently investigated. The amount of sodium ampicillin released has been detected by UV-VIS spectroscopy and SEM. The release kinetics seems to occur in more than one stage. HPLC analysis has also been taken to ensure the integrity of ampicillin after the synthetic treatment. Finally, SEM micrographs and EDS analysis showed the formation of a hydroxyapatite layer on the surface of the samples soaked in SBF. Both the materials showed good release and could be used as drug delivery bioactive systems. High antimicrobial effects of samples against Escherichia coli and Streptococcus mutants were found.

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