In vivo behavior of bioactive phosphate glass-ceramics from the system P2O5–Na2O–CaO containing TiO2

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Soda lime phosphate bioglass-ceramics with incorporation of small additions of TiO2 were prepared in the metaphosphate and pyrophosphate region, using an appropriate two-step heat treatment of controlled crystallization defined by differential thermal analysis results. Identification and quantification of crystalline phases precipitated from the soda lime phosphate glasses were performed using X-ray diffraction analysis. Calcium pyrophosphate (β-Ca2P2O7), sodium metaphosphate (NaPO3), calcium metaphosphate (β-Ca(PO3)2), sodium pyrophosphate (Na4P2O7), sodium calcium phosphate (Na4Ca(PO3)6) and sodium titanium phosphate (Na5Ti(PO4)3) phases were detected in the prepared glass-ceramics. The degradation of the prepared glass-ceramics were carried out for different periods of time in simulated body fluid at 37 °C using granules in the range of (0.300–0.600 mm). The released ions were estimated by atomic absorption spectroscopy and the surface textures were measured by scanning electron microscopy. Evaluation of in vivo bioactivity of the prepared glass-ceramics was carried through implanting the samples in the rabbit femurs. The results showed that the addition of 0.5 TiO2 mol% enhanced the bioactivity while further increase of the TiO2 content decreased the bioactivity. The effect of titanium dioxide on the bioactivity was interpreted on the basis of its action on the crystallization process of the glass-ceramics.

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