To investigate the methods to improve the cell–material interaction of devices or tissue engineering scaffolds made of poly(L-lactic acid) (PLLA) polymer, apatite and apatite/collagen composite coatings were formed on PLLA films within 24 h through accelerated biomimetic processes. In vitro investigation using Saos-2 osteoblast-like cells through cell culture was conducted to assess the biological performance of these biomimetic coatings. The cell morphology on three types of surfaces, viz., PLLA film, PLLA film with the apatite coating, and PLLA film with the apatite/collagen composite coating, was studied using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cell viability was estimated using the MTT assay. The differentiated cell function was assessed by measuring the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity. The results obtained indicated that the biomimetic apatite and apatite/collagen composite coatings could significantly enhance the proliferation and differentiation of osteoblast-like cells. The apatite/collagen composite coating appears to be promising for the surface modification of PLLA-based devices with much improved interactions with osteoblastic cells.