The cytocompatibility of cyclodextrins (CDs) grafting on vascular polyester (PET) prostheses for further loading with biomolecules was investigated in this study. Viability tests demonstrated no toxicity of HP-CDs and PolyHP-CDs at 4,000 mg/l with survival rates of 80 to 96%. Proliferation tests using the human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cell line (HPMEC-ST1) revealed an excellent biocompatibility for Melinex® (Film form of PET). For Polythese® and Polymaille®, a good proliferation rate was observed at 3 days (60–80%) but decreased at 6 days (56–73%). For all CD-grafted samples, low proliferation rates were observed after 6 days (35–38%). Vitality tests revealed excellent functional capacities of HPMEC cells after 3 and 6 days for all samples. Adhesion kinetics tests showed a similar adhesion of HPMEC cells on control and Melinex®. A low adhesion was observed on Polythese® and especially on Polymaille® compared to control. After CD grafting, the cell adhesion was decreased. The woven or knitted architecture and CD grafting were the most likely causes of this weak adhesion. The adhesion kinetic test was confirmed by SEM observations and immunocytochemistry. The low proliferation of HPMEC on virgin prostheses and especially on grafted prostheses was not due to a cytotoxic effect, but to the physical surface characteristics of the prostheses.