Rate of Low Vitamin D Levels in a Low-Risk Obstetric Population

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Abstract

Introduction:

The objectives of this study were to determine vitamin D levels at the first prenatal visit in women who had no obstetric risk factors and, if determined to have a low vitamin D level, to evaluate how high-dose treatment affected the vitamin D level by the end of the second trimester.

Methods:

This study was a descriptive, retrospective chart review. Women were identified through electronic database query based on prenatal care initiation. One hundred and four women had a 25-hydroxy (OH) vitamin D (25[OH]D) serum level drawn at the first prenatal visit. Supplementation was recommended with either 2000 or 4000 units of vitamin D3 for women who had vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency. Twenty women who were treated had repeat vitamin D levels drawn at 28 weeks' gestation to evaluate the effectiveness of supplementation.

Results:

Descriptive analysis of demographic data of 104 women who had 25(OH)D levels drawn determined there were no significant differences between women who were vitamin D deficient or insufficient and those whose serum levels were in the sufficient range. Vitamin D serum levels revealed that 32 (30.8%) were sufficient (>30 ng/mL), 49 (47.1%) were insufficient (20-29 ng/mL), and 23 (22.1%) were deficient (<20 ng/mL). Twenty women had a repeat measure of 25(OH)D after supplementation, and there was a significant rise in vitamin D level (P < .001) with vitamin D3 supplementation. However, women who took 4000 units had a higher mean rise (13.17 ng/mL) in 25(OH)D than those taking 2000 units (8.79 ng/mL). Twelve of the women (60%) were still insufficient after supplementation with 2000 units of vitamin D3.

Discussion:

This small sample of women demonstrates a significant degree of insufficiency and deficiency in this desert community where sunshine is plentiful. A larger study should be completed to determine ideal supplementation during pregnancy.

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