Previous epidemiologic studies of fruit and vegetable intake and bladdercancer risk have yielded inconsistent results, especially with regard to the types of fruits andvegetables consumed. We examined total fruit and vegetable intake, as well as intakes ofsubtypes of fruits and vegetables, in relation to bladder cancer risk in a large male prospectivecohort study.Methods
Two hundred fifty-two cases of incident bladder cancer werediagnosed from 1986 through January 31, 1996, among 47 909 men enrolled in theHealth Professionals Follow-up Study. Each participant in this cohort completed a 131-itemfood-frequency questionnaire in 1986 and subsequently in 1990 and 1994. We used logisticregression analyses to examine fruit and vegetable intake in relation to bladder cancer risk, afteradjusting for age, history of cigarette smoking, current smoking status, geographic region, totalfluid intake, and caloric intake.Results
We observed a weak, inverse association that was notstatistically significant between total fruit and vegetable intake and bladder cancer risk. Intake ofcruciferous vegetables was inversely associated with risk (relative risk=0.49; 95%confidence interval=0.32-0.75, for the highest category of cruciferous vegetable intakecompared with the lowest), but intakes of yellow or green leafy vegetables or carotenoid-richvegetables were not associated with risk. Individual cruciferous vegetables, except for coleslaw,were all inversely related to bladder cancer risk, but only the associations for broccoli andcabbage were statistically significant.Conclusions
Data from this study indicate that highcruciferous vegetable consumption may reduce bladder cancer risk, but other vegetables andfruits may not confer appreciable benefits against this cancer.