Race and Hormone Receptor–Positive Breast Cancer Outcomes in a Randomized Chemotherapy Trial

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Abstract

Background

The association between black race and worse outcomes in operable breast cancer reported in previous studies has been attributed to a higher incidence of more aggressive triple-negative disease, disparities in care, and comorbidities. We evaluated associations between black race and outcomes, by tumor hormone receptor and HER2 expression, in patients who were treated with contemporary adjuvant therapy.

Methods

The effect of black race on disease-free and overall survival was evaluated using Cox proportional hazards models adjusted for multiple covariates in a clinical trial population that was treated with anthracycline- and taxane-containing chemotherapy. Categorical variables were compared using the Fisher exact test. All P values are two-sided.

Results

Of 4817 eligible patients, 405 (8.4%) were black. Compared with nonblack patients, black patients had a higher rate of triple-negative disease (31.9% vs 17.2%; P < .001) and a higher body mass index (median: 31.7 vs 27.4 kg/m2; P < .001). Black race was statistically significantly associated with worse disease-free survival (5-year disease-free survival, black vs nonblack: 76.7% vs 84.5%; hazard ratio of recurrence or death = 1.58, 95% confidence interval = 1.19 to 2.10, P = .0015) and overall survival (5-year overall survival, black vs nonblack: 87.6% vs 91.9%; hazard ratio of death = 1.49, 95% confidence interval = 1.05 to 2.12, P = .025) in patients with hormone receptor–positive HER2-negative disease but not in patients with triple-negative or HER2-positive disease. In a model that included black race, hormone receptor–positive HER2-negative disease vs other subtypes, and their interaction, the interaction term was statistically significant for disease-free survival (P = .027) but not for overall survival (P = .086).

Conclusion

Factors other than disparities in care or aggressive disease contribute to increased recurrence in black women with hormone receptor–positive breast cancer.

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