Peripheral T-cell lymphomas (PTCLs) are uncommon, heterogeneous, and aggressive non-Hodgkin's lymphomas. Despite progress in the last several years resulting in a deeper understanding of PTCL biology and pathogenesis, there is currently no accepted single standard of care for newly diagnosed patients, and for those with relapsed or refractory disease, prognosis is dismal. The National Cancer Institute convened a Clinical Trials Planning Meeting to advance the national clinical trial agenda in lymphoma. The objective was to identify unmet needs specific to five major lymphoma subtypes and develop strategies to address them. This consensus statement reviews recent advances in the molecular and genetic characterization of PTCL that may inform novel treatments, proposes strategies to test novel therapies in the relapsed setting with the hopes of rapid advancement into frontline trials, and underscores the need for the identification and development of active and biologically rational therapies to cure PTCL at higher rates, with iterative biomarker evaluation.