Computer Simulation of Intracranial Pressure Changes During Induction of Anesthesia: Comparison of Thiopental, Propofol, and Etomidate

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Abstract

Summary

We have developed a computer model of cerebrovascular hemodynamics that interacts with a pharmacokinetic drag model. We used this model to examine the effects of various stimuli occurring during anesthesia on cerebral blood flow (CBF) and intracranial pressure (ICP). The model is a seven-compartment constant-volume system. A series of resistances and compliances relate blood and cerebrovascular fluid fluxes to pressure gradients between compartments. Variable arterial-arteriolar resistance (Ra-ar) and arteriolar-capillary resistance (Rar-c) simulate autoregulation and drug effects, respectively. Rar-c. is also used to account for the effect of CO2 on the cerebral circulation. A three-compartment pharmacokinetic model predicts concentration-time profiles of intravenous induction agents. The effect-site compartment is included to account for disequilibrium between drug plasma and biophase concentrations. The simulation program is written in VisSim dynamic simulation language for an IBM-compatible personal computer. Using the model, we have predicted ICP responses during induction of anesthesia for a simulated patient with normal as well as elevated ICP. Simulation shows that the induction dose of intravenous anesthetic reduces ICP up to 30% (propofol > thiopental > etomidate). The duration of this effect is limited to less than 5 minutes by rapid drug redistribution and cerebral autoregulation. Subsequent laryngoscopy causes acute intracranial hypertension, exceeding the initial ICP. ICP elevation is more pronounced in a nonautoregulated cerebral circulation. Simulation results are in good agreement with the available experimental data. The presented model allows comparison of various drug administration schedules to control ICP.

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