Developing and Testing a Measurement Tool for Assessing Predictors of Breakfast Consumption Based on a Health Promotion Model

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To develop an instrument for measuring Health Promotion Model constructs in terms of breakfast consumption, and to identify the constructs that were predictors of breakfast consumption among Iranian female students.


A questionnaire on Health Promotion Model variables was developed and potential predictors of breakfast consumption were assessed using this tool.


One hundred female students, mean age 13 years (SD ± 1.2 years).


Two middle schools from moderate-income areas in Qom, Iran.

Variables Measured:

Health Promotion Model variables were assessed using a 58-item questionnaire. Breakfast consumption was also measured.


Internal consistency (Cronbach alpha), content validity index, content validity ratio, multiple linear regression using stepwise method, and Pearson correlation.


Content validity index and content validity ratio scores of the developed scale items were 0.89 and 0.93, respectively. Internal consistencies (range, .74–.91) of subscales were acceptable. Prior related behaviors, perceived barriers, self-efficacy, and competing demand and preferences were 4 constructs that could predict 63% variance of breakfast frequency per week among subjects.

Conclusions and Implications:

The instrument developed in this study may be a useful tool for researchers to explore factors affecting breakfast consumption among students. Students with a high level of self-efficacy, more prior related behavior, fewer perceived barriers, and fewer competing demands were most likely to regularly consume breakfast.

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