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About one third of all patients recovering from stroke will experience some degree of poststroke depression (PSD). PSD lengthens recovery times and reduces overall quality of life for these individuals. Although demographic, environmental, and clinical factors may explain some of the variability seen, these factors cannot fully predict the development of PSD. Furthermore, the precise mechanism of action is largely unknown. Recent work has begun to shed light on the influence of the monoamine neurotransmitter dopamine. This article summarizes the current evidence for the involvement of the dopaminergic system for PSD, using both preclinical and clinical models. Finally, a conceptual model is proposed that addresses the contributions of dopamine to the development of PSD.