Model systems have shown that adenoviral vector mediated transient gene expression can potentially be applied for the treatment of brain tumours, neurodegenerative diseases and brain injuries. Most studies utilized adenovirus serotype 5 (Ad5) based vectors, which as adhesion molecules require the coxsackie adenovirus receptor (CAR) as a critical determinant for cellular infection. In this report, we have systematically characterized CAR expression in the adult human central nervous system (CNS) by using immunohistochemistry. A total of 85 specimens from various CNS regions were investigated for CAR expression in a cell type-dependent context. The most marked staining positivity was found in the choroid plexus and the pituitary gland. The neocortex had scattered positive neurons, while the white matter was mainly negative. We need to consider the possible adverse effects and the possible damage caused by adenoviral gene therapy if the virus—vector also binds to normal brain cells.