The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of stimulation of D2 receptors in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) on spontaneous motor activity and the hyperactivity induced by the psychomimetic phencyclidine (PCP). In addition, the effects of prefrontal D2 stimulation under PCP treatment on dialysate concentrations of acetylcholine, choline, dopamine, DOPAC and HVA in the nucleus accumbens were also investigated. Sprague-Dawley male rats were implanted with guide cannulae to perform bilateral injections into the medial PFC of the D2 agonist quinpirole (1.5 and 5 μg/side). Horizontal and vertical spontaneous motor activity and the motor activity induced by systemic injections of the PCP (5 mg/kg i.p.) were monitored in the open field. PFC injections of quinpirole (1.5 and 5 μg/side) significantly decreased horizontal and vertical spontaneous motor activity in a dose-related manner. These effects were blocked by the D2 antagonist raclopride (5 μg/side). Microinjections of quinpirole (1.5 and 5 μg/side) into the PFC also significantly attenuated the hyperactivity produced by PCP (5 mg/kg i.p.). PCP also increased dialysate concentrations of acetylcholine, and dopamine metabolites in the nucleus accumbens. These increases were also reduced by injections of quinpirole (5 μg/side) into the PFC. These results suggest that the stimulation of prefrontal D2 receptors plays an inhibitory role in regulating spontaneous and PCP-induced motor activity and also in the neurochemical changes produced by PCP in the nucleus accumbens.