Stimulus-Specific Hierarchy of Enhancer Elements Within the Rat Prodynorphin Promoter

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Induction of the prodynorphin gene occurs in a tissue-specific manner following different physiological stimuli. Using electrophoretic mobility shift assays, we studied the relative activity of the five major regulatory sites in the rat prodynorphin promoter. Prodynorphin cyclic AMP-responsive element 2 (DynCRE2), DynCRE3, and the noncanonical prodynorphin AP-1 (ncDynAP-1) regulatory sites control, in a coordinated manner, prodynorphin induction in the spinal cord after noxious stimulation, whereas prodynorphin up-regulation in supraoptic neurons is regulated predominantly by the ncDynAP-1. Conversely, prodynorphin transactivation in the ovaries upon gonadotropin stimulation is controlled by DynCRE1 and DynCRE3. Our results support the idea that stimulus-specific changes in nuclear proteins establish a functional hierarchy among regulatory sites in the prodynorphin promoter and provide further insight in the molecular mechanisms that govern prodynorphin gene regulation.

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