The cytochrome P450 2D (CYP2D) mediates synthesis of serotonin from 5-methoxytryptamine (5-MT), shown in vitro for cDNA-expressed CYP2D-isoforms and liver and brain microsomes. We aimed to demonstrate this synthesis in the brain in vivo. We measured serotonin tissue content in brain regions after 5-MT injection into the raphe nuclei (Model-A), and its extracellular concentration in rat frontal cortex and striatum using an in vivo microdialysis (Model-B) in male Wistar rats. Naïve rats served as control animals. 5-MT injection into the raphe nuclei of PCPA-(tryptophan hydroxylase inhibitor)-pretreated rats increased the tissue concentration of serotonin (from 40 to 90% of the control value, respectively, in the striatum), while the CYP2D inhibitor quinine diminished serotonin level in some brain structures of those animals (Model-A). 5-MT given locally through a microdialysis probe markedly increased extracellular serotonin concentration in the frontal cortex and striatum (to 800 and 1000% of the basal level, respectively) and changed dopamine concentration (Model-B). Quinine alone had no effect on serotonin concentration; however, given jointly with 5-MT, it prevented the 5-MT-induced increase in cortical serotonin in naïve rats and in striatal serotonin in PCPA-treated animals. These results indicate that the CYP2D-catalyzed alternative pathway of serotonin synthesis from 5-MT is relevant in the brain in vivo, and set a new target for the action of psychotropics.