Absence of infiltrating peripheral myeloid cells in the brains of mouse models of lysosomal storage disorders

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Approximately 70 lysosomal storage diseases are currently known, resulting from mutations in genes encoding lysosomal enzymes and membrane proteins. Defects in lysosomal enzymes that hydrolyze sphingolipids have been relatively well studied. Gaucher disease is caused by the loss of activity of glucocerebrosidase, leading to accumulation of glucosylceramide. Gaucher disease exhibits a number of subtypes, with types 2 and 3 showing significant neuropathology. Sandhoff disease results from the defective activity of β-hexosaminidase, leading to accumulation of ganglioside GM2. Niemann-Pick type C disease is primarily caused by the loss of activity of the lysosomal membrane protein, NPC1, leading to storage of cholesterol and sphingosine. All three disorders display significant neuropathology, accompanied by neuroinflammation. It is commonly assumed that neuroinflammation is the result of infiltration of monocyte-derived macrophages into the brain; for instance, cells resembling lipid-engorged macrophages (‘Gaucher cells’) have been observed in the brain of Gaucher disease patients. We now review the evidence that inflammatory macrophages are recruited into the brain in these diseases and then go on to provide some experimental data that, at least in the three mouse models tested, monocyte-derived macrophages do not appear to infiltrate the brain. Resident microglia, which are phenotypically distinct from infiltrating macrophages, are the only myeloid population present in significant numbers within the brain parenchyma in these authentic mouse models, even during the late symptomatic stages of disease when there is substantial neuroinflammation.

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