Integrated flat detector CT and live fluoroscopic-guided external ventricular drain placement within the neuroangiography suite

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To demonstrate the feasibility of the application of integrated flat detector (FD) CT and fluoroscopic guidance (iGuide) for the placement of external ventricular drains (EVD) within the neuroangiography suite.


A retrospective review of a prospectively maintained endovascular database identified six patients who underwent EVD placement using iGuide. Patient characteristics, operator, number of passes, accuracy of placement, immediate and delayed periprocedural complications and radiation exposure were assessed.


Five patients with subarachnoid hemorrhage and one patient with a large cerebellar infarct (average age 45.5 years (range 39–53), four women) underwent EVD placement within the angiography suite using iGuide. Four procedures were performed by a neuroradiologist and two by a neurosurgeon. All catheters were placed with a single pass and all terminated within the frontal horn of the ipsilateral lateral ventricle. No parenchymal or intraventricular hemorrhages were encountered after catheter placement. No patients experienced any immediate or delayed periprocedural complications. Radiation exposure related to the FD CTs required for placement was 593.7 mGy (range 539–673).


EVD placement under combined CT and fluoroscopic control within the neuroangiography suite is feasible. The technique predictably allows optimized EVD catheter placement with a single pass. We propose that this technique could improve the accuracy, and potentially reduce the complications, of EVD insertion in cerebrovascular patients.

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