Cerebral arterial angioplasty in a patient with Loeys-Dietz syndrome: Case report

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A 14-year-old boy with Loeys-Dietz syndrome (LDS) had an acute neurologic decline 6□days after a subarachnoid hemorrhage. Cerebral angiography at presentation did not show an aneurysmal source of the hemorrhage. However, on post-bleed day 6 the patient experienced an acutely worsening headache and subsequently lost consciousness. Head CT showed new subarachnoid blood and repeat angiography demonstrated a basilar tip aneurysm. Endovascular coil embolization was performed and his neurologic status improved postoperatively until post-bleed day 9 when he became unresponsive. A CT angiogram demonstrated severe proximal vasospasm. After an unsuccessful attempt to treat the vasospasm medically, the patient was transported to the neurointerventional suite for intra-arterial vasodilator treatment, which also failed to ameliorate the vasospasm. The endovascular surgeons were then faced with the conundrum of attempting a high-risk cerebral angioplasty in a pediatric patient with LDS or returning to maximal medical treatment for severe refractory vasospasm.

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