Current status of training environments in neuro-interventional practice: are animal models still contemporary?

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Several different training environments for practicing neurointerventional procedures have been realized in silico, in vitro, and in vivo. We seek to replace animal-based training with suitable alternatives. In an effort to determine present training model distribution and preferences, we interviewed interventional neuroradiologists from 25 different countries about their experience in distinct training environments.


A voluntary online survey comprising 24 questions concerning the different training facilities was designed and electronically conducted with the members of the European Society for Minimally Invasive Neurological Therapy.


Seventy-one physicians with an average experience of 11.8 (±8.7) years completed the survey. The majority of participants had experience with animal-based training (eg, stroke intervention: 36; 50.7%). Overall, animal-based training was rated as the most suitable environment to practice coil embolization (20 (±6)), flow diverter placement (13 (±7)), and stroke intervention (13.5 (±9)). In-vitro training before using a new device in patients was supported by most participants (35; 49.3%). Additionally, preference for certain training models was related to the years of experience.


This survey discloses the preferred training modalities in European neurointerventional centers with the majority of physicians supporting the general concept of in-vitro training, concomitantly lacking a standardized curriculum for educating neurointerventional physicians. Most suitable training modalities appeared to be dependent on procedure and experience. As animal-based training is still common, alternate artificial environments meeting these demands must be further developed.

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