Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a multicausal phenomenon and a final end point of the combination of a number of potential causes. Our study aimed to examine potential risk and recovery factors of PTSD in general adult population at 1-year follow-up period. The sample consisted of 640 subjects in the initial phase, chosen by random walk technique in five regions of the country, and 100 in the follow-up. The assessment has been carried out by the following instruments: Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, Life Stressor Checklist-Revised, Brief Symptom Inventory, and Manchester Short Assessment of Quality of Life Scale. Older age, low education, and lower monthly income are potential risk factors for current PTSD, as well as decreased quality of life, psychiatric comorbidity, and higher personal distress. Urban population, higher quality of life, smaller number of stressors, and lower personal distress contributed to recovery of PTSD. It is essential to know the risk and resilience factors that contribute to the development and recovery of PTSD, which is important for prevention and treatment of this disorder.