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This is a cross-sectional study of participants from a population census living in the province of Granada (Spain). A total of 1176 persons were contacted, 367 (31%) refused and 54 (6.7%) needed substitution. A final sample of 809 participants (response rate, 69.3%) were screened for mental disorder (MD) using the MINI International Neuropsychiatric Interview, a comprehensive interview validated to generate diagnoses compatible with ICD-10/DSM-4 criteria. Current (1-month) prevalence for any MD was 11.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 9.7%–13.4%; affective 8.2%, anxiety 9.6%, psychotic 2.1%, addiction 1.8%, personality disorder 3.6%). Lifetime MD prevalence was 24.6% (95% CI, 21.6–27.6; affective 14.9%, anxiety 15.5%, psychotic 3.4%, addiction 4.4%, personality disorder 3.6%). Female sex was associated with MD, but this appeared partially due to higher levels of neuroticism among women. MD also correlated significantly with cannabis use, family history of MD, higher social adversity, higher suicide risk, poorer physical health, poorer cognitive performance, and personality problems.