Cognitive impairment and personality disorders are severe comorbidities commonly observed in patients with epilepsy, and together they decrease the quality of patients' life. This study aimed to evaluate cognitive function and personality traits in patients with epilepsy with the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale–Chinese revised and Eysenck Personality Questionnaire and investigate the underlying influencing factors. Compared with the control group, our results showed that patients with epilepsy were presented with significant cognitive impairment and particular personality traits. Epileptic seizure-related factors including earlier age of onset, longer duration of epileptic history, and higher seizure frequency were significantly associated with the observed defects in cognition and personality traits. In addition, the temporal lobe was more likely to affect cognition and personality, and the left hemisphere was closely related to verbal intelligence quotient, which needs to be the focus of future research. These results will be instrumental for guiding the treatment of epilepsy.