The Self-Efficacy for Functional Abilities Scale for Older Adults in Long-Term Care: Two-Level Exploratory and Confirmatory Factor Analysis

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Background and Purpose:

This study examines the underlying factor structure of the Self-Efficacy for Functional Abilities (SEFA) scale among older adults in long-term care settings.


A secondary analysis of SEFA data for 568 residents in 16 long-term care facilities was applied. The sample was randomly split into 2 subsamples. A 2-level exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis adjusting for clustering effect of facilities was used to identify and determine the factor structures respectively.


There were 1- and 2-factor models that were identified. Both models demonstrated acceptably mixed model fit. The 2-factor model had poor discriminant validity with high correlation between factors (r = .92, p < .001). The single-factor model was considered valid with moderate correlation with function (r = .301, p < .001).


The SEFA scale demonstrated a unidimensional construct among older adults in long-term care settings. Future testing is needed among other older adult populations.

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