To examine cognitive and neurological changes and their relation to brain pathology in patients with multiple sclerosis during acute relapse.Methods
Thirteen patients with multiple sclerosis were examined with a battery of neuropsychological tests during acute relapse and six weeks later. Their performance was compared with the performance of 10 controls matched for age and premorbid IQ. Gadolinium (Gd) enhanced MRI was also performed in patients on both occasions.Results
The patients with multiple sclerosis performed significantly worse than controls on most tests of attention and memory during acute relapse and in remission. At follow up there was a significant or trend of improvement in performance on some tests of attention for patients in whom the Gd enhanced lesion load had decreased. In this subgroup of patients, their improvement also correlated significantly with the reduction in acute lesion load.Conclusions
The findings suggest that certain neuropsychological deficits detected during an acute relapse may be reversible, particularly in patients who initially have mild cognitive impairment.