The metals iron (Fe) and manganese (Mn) are essential for normal functioning of the brain. This review focuses on recent developments in the literature pertaining to Fe and Mn transport. These metals are treated together because they appear to share several transport mechanisms. In addition, several neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease, and Huntington's Disease are all associated with Fe mismanagement in the brain, particularly in the striatum and basal ganglia. Similarly, Mn accumulation in brain also appears to target the same brain regions. Therefore, stringent regulation of the concentration of these metals in the brain is essential. The homeostatic mechanisms for these metals must be understood in order to design neurotoxicity prevention strategies. J. Neurosci. Res. 56:113–122, 1999.