Hmong American Women Living With Diabetes

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To understand how to better care for Hmong women with diabetes using nursing theory praxis.


Qualitative phenomenologic design, specifically community-based collaborative action research based on Margaret Newman's theory of health as expanding consciousness (HEC).


Five Hmong women with Type 2 diabetes and HgbA1c levels over 7.0 were recruited from a community-health clinic. Audiotaped in-home interviews were conducted and data were analyzed to identify common patterns and then developed into a play by the research team with the help of a female Hmong playwright. Community dialogue about the findings generated meaningful actions for health.


This study indicates the value of nursing praxis rooted in the theory of health as expanding consciousness and the importance of engaging communities to identify meaningful patterns of health and needed actions.

Clinical Relevance:

Evidence-based practice is lacking in the care of Hmong women with diabetes. Community-based collaborative action research rooted in the HEC perspective is a new way to envision models of care.

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