We investigated the distribution pattern of SMI-32-immunopositive cells in the lateral geniculate nucleus (LGN) and in the primary (V1) and middle temporal (MT) cortical visual areas of the adult New World monkey Cebus apella. In the LGN, the reaction for SMI-32 labeled cells in both the magnocellular (M) and parvocellular (P) layers. However, the cellular label was heavier in M layers, which also showed a more intense labeling in the neuropil. In V1, the reaction showed a lamination pattern, with the heaviest labeling occurring in layer 4B and upper layer 6 (layers that project to area MT). Area MT shows a dense band of labeled neuropil and large pyramidal neurons in layer 3, large darkly labeled but less densely packed neurons in layer 5, and a population of small, lightly labeled cells in layer 6. These results resemble those found in other New and Old World monkeys, which suggest that the preferential labeling of projection neurons associated with fast-conducting pathways to the extrastriate dorsal stream is a common characteristic of simian primates. In the superficial layers of V1 in Cebus monkeys, however, SMI-32-labeled neurons are found in both cytochrome oxidase blobs and interblob regions. In this aspect, our results in Cebus are similar to those found in the Old World monkey Macaca and different from those described for squirrel monkey, a smaller New World Monkey. In Cebus, as well as in Macaca, there is no correlation between SMI-32 distribution and the blob pattern.