Nanoemulsion as pharmaceutical carrier for dermal and transdermal drug delivery: Formulation development, stability issues, basic considerations and applications

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The use of nanoemulsion in augmenting dermal and transdermal effectiveness of drugs has now well established. The development of nanoemulsion based semisolid dosage forms is an active area of present research. However, thickening or liquid-to-semisolid conversion of the nanoemulsions provides opportunities to the formulation scientist to explore novel means of solving instability issues during transformation. Extending knowledge about the explicit role of nature/magnitude of zeta potential, types of emulsifiers and selection of appropriate semisolid bases could place these versatile carriers from laboratory to industrial scale. This article reviews the progressive advancement in the delivery of medicament via nanoemulsion with special reference to the dermal and transdermal administration. It is attempted to explore the most suitable semi solid dosage form for the particular type of nanoemulsion (o/w, w/o and others) and effect of particle size and zeta potential on the delivery of drugs through dermal or transdermal route. Finally, this review also highlights the basic principles and fundamental considerations of nanoemulsion manufacture, application of nanoemulsion based semisolid dosage forms in the dermal/transdermal administration and basic considerations during the nanoemulsion absorption into and through skin.Graphical abstract

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