Combinations of therapeutic agents could synergistically enhance the response of lung cancer cells. Co-delivery systems capable of transporting chemotherapeutics with different physicochemical properties and with the simultaneous release of drugs remain elusive. Here, we assess the ability of nanoparticles of 30-nm diameter obtained from the self-assembly of hyaluronan-based copolymer targeting CD44 receptors to encapsulate both gefitinib and vorinostat for effective combinational lung cancer treatment. Drug loading was performed by nanoprecipitation. Drug release experiments showed a slow release of both drugs after 5 days. Using two- and three-dimensional lung adenocarcinoma cell cultures, we observed that the nanoparticles were mostly found at the periphery of the CD44-expressing spheroids. These drug-loaded nanoparticles were as cytotoxic as free drugs in the two- and three-dimensional systems and toxicity was due to apoptosis induction. In mouse models, intravenous injection of hyaluronan-based nanoparticles showed a selective delivery to subcutaneous CD44-overexpressing tumors, despite a significant liver capture. In addition, the systemic toxicity of the free drugs was reduced by their co-delivery using the nanoparticles. Finally, intrapulmonary administration of drug-loaded nanoparticles, to avoid a possible hepatic toxicity due to their accumulation in the liver, showed a stronger inhibition of orthotopic lung tumor growth compared to free drugs. In conclusion, hyaluronan-based nanoparticles provide active targeting partially mediated by CD44, less-toxic drug release and improved antitumor efficiency.