Dual TLR agonist nanodiscs as a strong adjuvant system for vaccines and immunotherapy

    loading  Checking for direct PDF access through Ovid


Recent studies have shown that certain combinations of Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists can induce synergistic immune activation. However, it remains challenging to achieve such robust responses in vivo in a manner that is effective, facile, and amenable for clinical translation. Here, we show that MPLA, a TLR4 agonist, and CpG, a TLR9 agonist, can be efficiently co-loaded into synthetic high-density lipoprotein nanodiscs, forming a potent adjuvant system (ND-MPLA/CpG) that can be readily combined with a variety of subunit antigens, including proteins and peptides. ND-MPLA/CpG significantly enhanced activation of dendritic cells, compared with free dual adjuvants or nanodiscs delivering a single TLR agonist. Importantly, mice immunized with physical mixtures of protein antigens ND-MPLA/CpG generated strong humoral responses, including induction of IgG responses against protein convertase subtilisin/kexin 9 (PCSK9), leading to 17–30% reduction of the total plasma cholesterol levels. Moreover, ND-MPLA/CpG exerted strong anti-tumor efficacy in multiple murine tumor models. Compared with free adjuvants, ND-MPLA/CpG admixed with ovalbumin markedly improved antigen-specific CD8+ T cell responses by 8-fold and promoted regression of B16F10-OVA melanoma (P < 0.0001). Furthermore, ND-MPLA/CpG admixed with E7 peptide antigen elicited ˜20% E7-specific CD8+ T cell responses and achieved complete regression of established TC-1 tumors in all treated animals. Taken together, our work highlights the simplicity, versatility, and potency of dual TLR agonist nanodiscs for applications in vaccines and cancer immunotherapy.Graphical abstract

    loading  Loading Related Articles