Nanotechnology-mediated immunochemotherapy combined with docetaxel and PD-L1 antibody increase therapeutic effects and decrease systemic toxicity

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Immunotherapy has exhibited enormous practice in the treatment of melanoma because of the intrinsic properties of tumor. Tumor can downmodulate immune function via multiple mechanisms such as immune checkpoint pathways. The PD-L1 monoclonal antibodies that block the PD1/PD-L1 pathway, which induced tumor cells to evade an immune attack, can delay tumor growth efficiently with inevitable disadvantages such as low selectivity and systemic toxicity. Nanomedicine is clearly an approach that holds tremendous potential for addressing the shortcomings and assisting delivery of drugs with proper biodistribution. Herein, we developed a smart nanoplatform with precisely active targeting liposome co-loaded chemotherapy and immunotherapy drugs for synergistic antitumor effects while decreasing systemic toxicity. Immunoliposomes have stable pharmaceutical properties and show a significant antitumor effect in vivo and in vitro. Cellular uptake in vitro and biodistribution in vivo demonstrated that immunoliposomes could be delivered and accumulated more in tumor tissues. These immunoliposomes exhibited effective tumor inhibition and prolonged survival time due to activation of tumor-specific CD8+ T cell and highly selective tumor killing. In addition, safety evaluation of liposomes also demonstrated their increased tumor accumulation and decreased systemic toxicity. Hence, this smart pH-sensitive nanoplatform has promising potential for clinical applications and possibly provides a well-controlled design for combination of chemotherapy with various immunotherapies for further exploration.Graphical abstractHighlightsPreparation of immunoliposomes that co-loaded DTX and PD-L1 antibodyImmunoliposomes show precisely active targeting and effective therapeutic effectKilling tumor cell directly while switching off immunosuppressionIncreased tumor accumulation and decreased systemic toxicity by nanotechnology

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