Antiglioma via regulating oxidative stress and remodeling tumor-associated macrophage using lactoferrin-mediated biomimetic codelivery of simvastatin/fenretinide

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Effective treatment of malignant glioma still remains a formidable challenge due to lack of the effective BBB-permeable drugs and efficient brain delivery methods, and the pharmacotherapy options are very limited. Therefore, to develop an effective therapeutic strategy is a pressing need. In this work, a noncytotoxic drug combination (i.e., simvastatin and fenretinide) was revealed to be potent for treating glioma, which was co-encapsulated into a TPGS-TAT-embedded lactoferrin nanoparticle system for achieving brain-targeted biomimetic delivery via the LRP-1 receptor. It was shown that the lactoferrin nanoparticle repolarized the tumor-associated macrophages from the M2 phenotype to M1 via regulating the STAT6 pathway, as well as induced the ROS-mediated mitochondrial apoptosis by inhibiting the Ras/Raf/p-Erk pathway in the glioma cells. The antiglioma efficacy was further demonstrated in both the subcutaneous and orthotopic glioma models. The repolarization of tumor-associated macrophages not only prompted the ROS generation but also induced the innate immunity (e.g., antitumor cytokine release). This delivery and therapeutic strategy provides a novel modality for the glioma treatment.Graphical abstract

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