Exploratory analysis of estimated acoustic peak rarefaction pressure, recanalization, and outcome in the transcranial ultrasound in clinical sonothrombolysis trial

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PurposeAcoustic peak rarefaction pressure (APRP) is the main factor that influences ultrasound-enhanced thrombolysis. We sought to determine whether recanalization rate and functional outcomes in the Transcranial Ultrasound in Clinical SONothrombolysis (TUCSON) trial could be predicted by estimated in vivo APRP.MethodsWe developed an acoustic attenuation model to estimate the in vivo APRP at the arterial occlusion site in each subject of the TUCSON trial with CT scans eligible for measurements. Variables included temporal bone thickness, depth of arterial occlusion site, and average attenuation of skin and brain tissues. Recanalization was defined as partial or complete using the Thrombolysis in Brain Infarction flow grades. Functional independence was assessed at 3 months using the modified Rankin Scale score (mRS, 0–1).ResultsAPRP was calculated in 20 acute ischemic stroke patients treated with sonothrombolysis (mean age, 64 ± 15 years, 65% men; median NIHSS score, 13; IQR, 6–17). The mean APRP was 30.2 ± 15.5 kPa (range, 8–68 kPa). Patients with persisting occlusion had nonsignificantly lower APRP than patients with partial or complete recanalization (25.2 ± 8.0 versus 32.3 ± 17.7 kPa; p = 0.228). Patients who were functionally independent at 3 months had nonsignificantly higher APRP than patients with worse outcome (35.1 ± 19.5 versus 25.9 ± 11.2 kPa; p = 0.217).ConclusionsOur exploratory analysis suggests a potentially important role of successful energy delivery to augment thrombolysis with 2-MHz ultrasound in acute ischemic stroke patients. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound41:354–360, 2013

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