Sonographic appearances of cervical lymph nodes in healthy young Japanese adults: Association with age, sex, and body mass index

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Abstract

Purpose.

We investigated whether there was any association between age, sex, and body mass index (BMI) and nodal morphology and vascular pattern in healthy young Japanese adults.

Methods.

Three neck regions in 100 healthy subjects, 19–40 years old, were examined by gray-scale and color Doppler sonography. Vascular pattern was classified into three groups: avascular, hilar, or scattered. A linear mixed-effect model was used to identify associations of age, sex, or BMI with the short-axis diameter and the short-to-long axis diameter ratio (S/L). A cumulative link mixed model was used to identify any association between age, sex, BMI, and vascular pattern.

Results.

In the upper cervical region, a decrease in the short-axis diameter was statistically significantly associated with aging (p = 0.04), and an increase in the short-axis diameter was significantly associated with greater BMI (p < 0.001). An increase in short-axis diameter was significantly associated with female sex (p = 0.02) and higher BMI (p = 0.002) in the submandibular region, whereas it was associated with higher BMI (p = 0.001) in the submental region. A greater S/L was significantly associated with higher BMI and female sex in all regions. The scattered vascular pattern tended to be associated with lower BMI (p = 0.051) in the upper cervical region, but it was significantly associated with higher BMI (p = 0.01) in the submental region.

Conclusions.

Nodal morphology and vascular pattern may be associated with age, sex, and BMI. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. J Clin Ultrasound 43:295–301, 2015

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