To determine the inhibitory effects of all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA) on cell growth, cell cycle and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) expression in the human gastric cancer cell line BGC-823 in vitro.METHODS
Human gastric cancer BGC-823 cells were treated with various concentrations of ATRA and the cell growth was then determined using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide viability assay. The cell cycle distribution was analyzed using a flow cytometer. The VEGF mRNA and protein expression were analyzed by semi-quantitative RT-PCR and Western blotting, respectively.RESULTS
ATRA at concentrations of 0.1–10 μmol/L inhibited the growth of BGC-823 cells grown in culture; a time- and dose-dependent inhibitory influence was found. ATRA arrested BGC-823 cells at the G0/G1 phase in a dose-dependent way. Both VEGF mRNA and protein were decreased by ATRA in a dose-dependent way.CONCLUSION
The anti-tumor effects of ATRA on human gastric cancer cells are associated with G0/G1 phase arrest and decreased VEGF expression.