Adverse events associated with ribavirin in sofosbuvir-based therapies for patients with chronic hepatitis C: A community practice experience

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Abstract

OBJECTIVE:

Due to high sustained virological response (SVR) rates, sofosbuvir-based regimens are currently a mainstay for hepatitis C virus (HCV) therapies. The addition of pegylated interferon (PEG-IFN) and ribavirin impacts patients' quality of life during treatment. This study aimed to compare severe adverse events (SAEs) amongst therapeutic combinations for HCV in a community clinic setting.

METHODS:

From December 2013 to July 2014, 128 chronic HCV-infected patients were treated with sofosbuvir, ribavirin and weekly PEG-IFN for 12 weeks (cohort 1), 12 or 24 weeks of sofosbuvir and ribavirin (cohorts 2 and 3) or sofosbuvir plus simeprevir for 12 weeks (cohort 4). Adverse events were recorded from baseline to 12 or 24 weeks of treatment.

RESULTS:

SAEs appeared in 15.6–53.8% of ribavirin-inclusive treated patients compared to 4.8% of the ribavirin-free regimen. PEG-IFN, sofosbuvir plus ribavirin had the highest frequencies of fatigue, headache and rash compared to either 12 or 24 weeks of ribavirin and sofosbuvir. However, sofosbuvir and ribavirin regimens led to significant increases in dyspnea, need for ribavirin dose reductions and withdrawal from treatment due to SAEs. Anemia was also more frequent in ribavirin-inclusive combinations (P < 0.001). Conversely, sofosbuvir plus simeprevir reached similar SVR rates at week 12 post-treatment compared to all ribavirin-containing regimens, but with significantly fewer adverse events (P = 0.006). At week 12 post-treatment, cirrhotic patients experienced a higher virological relapse rate than non-cirrhotic patients (P = 0.019).

CONCLUSIONS:

Ribavirin-inclusive HCV therapies increased the frequencies of SAEs, had higher dropout rates and increased patient morbidity.

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