Effect of periodontal treatment on glycemic control of patients with diabetes: A systematic review and meta-analysis

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Abstract

Aims/Introduction:

The aim of the present study was to investigate whether non-surgical periodontal treatment reduces glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) and fasting plasma glucose (FPG) levels in diabetic patients.

Materials and Methods:

An electronic search was carried out on MEDLINE (through PubMed interface), EMBASE and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Randomized controlled trials with a minimum of 3 months follow up were included. The risk of bias was assessed for each study. A meta-analysis was carried out to evaluate the effect of non-surgical periodontal treatment on HbA1c and FPG levels. The effect of the adjunctive use of antimicrobials was also assessed.

Results:

A total of 15 studies were included. A reduction of −0.38% (95% confidence interval [CI] −0.23 to −0.53) after 3–4 months (P < 0.001) and of −0.31% (95% CI 0.11 to −0.74) after 6 months (P = 0.15) of follow-up was found for HbA1c, favoring the treatment group. Similarly, in treated patients, a significantly greater decrease in FPG was observed in respect to control participants. Such difference amounted to −9.01 mg/dL (95% CI −2.24 to −15.78) after 3–4 months (P = 0.009) and −13.62 mg/dL (95% CI 0.45 to −27.69) after 6 months (P = 0.06) from treatment, respectively. In participants treated with adjunctive antimicrobials, a non-significant increase of HbA1c was observed 3 months after treatment, whereas FPG decreased by 0.27 mg/dL (95% CI 39.56 to −40.11; P = 0.99).

Conclusions:

The meta-analysis showed that non-surgical periodontal treatment improves metabolic control in patients with both periodontitis and diabetes.

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